We use TEI

C. XML editors

C.1 Introduction
C.2 TextPad
C.3 <oXygen/>
C.4 Alternatives

Version 2.0 (16 May 2008). Links updated 12 July 2016.

C.1 Introduction

In order to write and edit XML one needs some sort of editing tool. Due to the nature of XML almost any text editing tool can be used, but there are also some specialised editors on the market. The decision on what kind of editor to use depends more or less entirely on personal preference and what kind of software the individual users are familiar with. There is no reason why a person cannot use Microsoft Word to edit or encode XML if he or she wishes – if that is the preferred editor for document editing.

The suggestions made below are only meant to be a guide to what we feel are convenient tools. For each of the editors we describe, there are probably a large number of almost identical alternatives, but these are the XML editing tools we have made use of and feel comfortable recommending to others.

C.2 TextPad


Operating system: Windows (all versions)
Version: 8.0.

Full size image (1025 x 768 pixels). Please note that this image is from an earlier version of TextPad.

C.2.1 Description

TextPad is basically a general text editor similar to the built-in Notepad in Windows. The main difference between these two editors is that TextPad has a number of additional functions that make text editing somewhat easier than in Notepad. Among the many extra functions are:

Unlimited undo/redo function. As opposed to many other editors that only remember the last command given, there is no limit to how far back you can go with the undo function i TextPad.
Expanded search and replace. TextPad does not only have the ability to do search and replace in text, but it can also search for regular expressions like tabulator, linebreak and space.
A built-in “file manager” that makes it easier to edit several documents simultaneously.

In addition to the numerous built-in functions there are a large number of programs that are made by TextPad users to extend the functionality of the program. Among the many add-ons we find a program that “cleans up” superfluous tabulators and blank lines and an option to run the Expat XML parser within TextPad. When it comes to XML support, TextPad has the ability to run DOS-commands from a menu. This basically means that validation of XML files with an external program like Xerces can be done without having to go to the command prompt. Command results are brought up in a file of its own in the file manager window.

Another useful function in TextPad is the ability to use so-called “clip libraries”. In the context of HTML/XML this means that the user can be given a list of all tags in a particular code language in a menu. Instead of typing the tags, they can just be selected from the menu and inserted into the text. Examples of existing “clip libraries” are: Dublin Core, HTML 4.0 and LaTeX. For Menota the biggest advantage of such clip libraries would probably be to create menus for the extensive entity list.

C.3 <oXygen/>


Operating system: Windows / Mac OS X / Linux / Unix / Eclipse
Version: 18 (as of 2016)
Price: from USD 99 (single user – academic version), 30 days free trial version

Full size image (1025 x 768 pixels). Please note that this image is from an earlier version of Oxygen.

C.3.1 Description

<oXygen/> is a pure XML editor and does therefore have quite a few specialised functions that are not normally found in a general text editor of the kind TextPad represents. <oXygen/> is, in many ways, similar to editors like XML Spy og Xmetal, but there are some points that, in our view, makes it a first choice compared to other editors.

This program is, like many other XML-related programs, written in Java and therefore available on most platforms, provided the computer has a Java environment installed. Like most specialised XML editors, <oXygen/> has built-in functions to check for well-formedness and validity of the file you are working with. It is also possible to run XSLT and FOP transformations from within the editor, and it has full Unicode support.

One of the big advantages of <oXygen/>, especially if working with premade schemas or dtds, is the so-called “Code-insight” system which it uses. If the document being edited is connected to a DTD (or XML Schema), the editor will be able to read this and “understand” the structure of the document. During text editing, context sensitive menus will be available – allowing for auto-completion of XML tags and attributes. This eliminates a lot of manual coding and makes editing easier for the author (see illustrations below).

In addition to being context sensitive to existing DTD's, the program also has the ability to “learn” the document structure of an XML file and build its own DTD if there is not one present already. <oXygen/> also has colour coding of the file formats it supports, and this can be changed to suit the users' preferences.

This editor is, in many ways, similar to emacs, which is a commonly used editor within the SGML/XML community – but it is somewhat easier to install and use.

Please note

C.4 Alternatives

The recommendation of <oXygen/> above is based on personal preference. There are many other XML editors out there that will work just as well - or in some cases even better. <oXygen/> was chosen for three reasons:

It is available for all platforms/operating systems
It has partial support for TEI built-in
It is relatively inexpensive.

If you need alternatives, some of the most frequently used editors are listed below:

C.4.1 Altova XML Spy


Operating system: Windows (2000, XP, VISTA, Server 2003)
Version: 2016
30 days free trial version

XML Spy is probably, as of today, the most widely used XML editor. It has won numerous industry awards, and is generally considered to be at the forefront of technological development - in terms of including new XML-related tecnologies into the software.

XML Spy is made specifically for Windows, which means it is less memory-intensive than Oxygen. The one negative point if you compare it to Oxygen is its relatively high price.

C.4.2 XMetal


Operating system: Windows (NT 4.0, 2000, XP, Server 2003)
Version: 11.0 (as of 2016)
30 days free trial version

XMetal is a suite of programs, described as "XML-based content lifecycle solutions to help global organizations automate and streamline processes for creating, managing, and publishing high volumes of content.". The editor part of it is closer, both in terms of looks and function, to what we are used to seeing in WYSIWYG editors for HTML than XML Spy. But it is still one of the most widely used XML editors out on the market, and a good alternative to XML Spy. It is, however, very expensive, and probably something you should consider if you want to get involved in making/maintaining larger knowledge bases and sites using more advanced XML technologies.

First published 20 May 2003. Last updated 12 July 2016. Webmaster.